In English, there are a number of conventions that should be used when writing a formal or business letter. Furthermore, try to write as simply and as clearly as possible, and not to make the letter too wordy than necessary. Remember not to use informal language like contractions.
1) Your Address
The return address should be written in the top right-hand corner of the letter.
2) The Address of the person you are writing to
The inside address should be written on the left, starting below your address.
Different people put the date on different sides of the page. You can write this on the right or the left on the line after the address you are writing to. Write the month as a word.
Salutation or greeting:
1) Dear Sir or Madam,
If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, use this. It is always advisable to try to find out a name.
2) Dear Mr Jenkins,
If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women.
Body: The matter of the letter is written here. It is divided into 3 paragraphs as follows –
Paragraph 1: Introduce yourself and the purpose of writing the letter in brief.
Paragraph 2: Give a detail of the matter.
Paragraph 3: Conclude by mentioning what you expect. (For example, a solution to your problem, to highlight an issue in the newspaper, etc).
Ending a letter:
1) Yours Faithfully
If you do not know the name of the person, end the letter this way.
2) Yours Sincerely
If you know the name of the person, end the letter this way.
3) Your signature
Sign your name, then print it underneath the signature. If you think the person you are writing to might not know whether you are male of female, put your title in brackets after your name.
Tips on writing an Informal Letter
The following points need to be followed while writing an Informal letter-
a) An Informal Letter does not strictly follow the prescribed Format.
b) The language of an Informal Letter must be friendly and casual.
c) An Informal Letter can have extra information.
d) The Subject line is not required in an Informal Letter.
The Format of an Informal Letter is as follows –
1. Address: The address of the sender is followed by that of the receiver.
2. Date: The date is written below the address after leaving one line.
3. Salutation / Greeting (Dear / Hi / Hello)
4. Body: The matter of the letter is written here. It is divided into 3 paragraphs as follows –
a) Paragraph 1: beginning
b) Paragraph 2: Main content.
c) Paragraph 3: ending
5. Sender’s name and signature.