CSEC Subjects Paper 2 Questions & Answer

by Powell


State two forms of energy

 Two forms of energy are Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy.

Define the term eutrophication

Eutrophication, is the gradual increase in the concentration of phosphorus, nitrogen, and other plant nutrients in an aging aquatic ecosystem such as a lake.

Two properties of water

⦁ Water in a pure state has a neutral pH. …
Water conducts heat more easily than any liquid except mercury. .

Define the term food preservation

Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage and prevent food borne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor.
Types of food additives
⦁ Anti-caking agents – stop ingredients from becoming lumpy.
⦁ Antioxidants – prevent foods from oxidising, or going rancid.
⦁ Artificial sweeteners – increase the sweetness.
⦁ Emulsifiers – stop fats from clotting together.
⦁ Food acids – maintain the right acid level.
⦁ Colours – enhance or add colour.

Anti-caking agent, prevents the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, flowability, and consumption. Such as table salt

Food Acids plays an important role in the natural preservation of foods. Helps to achieve the required pH, to buffer, to influence taste and flavour, to keep colour and texture of foods

Name the method of food preservation used to make raisin

Drying is the method of food preservation used to make raisins

Drying or “dehydrating” food is a method of food preservation that removes enough moisture from the food so bacteria, yeast and molds cannot grow.

State two uses of recycle plastic in the industry

Plastics are used in a growing range of applications in the construction industry. They have great versatility and combine excellent strength to weight ratio, durability, cost effectiveness, low maintenance and corrosion resistance which make plastics an economically attractive
Furniture: Bedding, upholstery and household furniture Automotive: Bumpers, dashboards, engine parts, seating and doors…..

List three ways plastic can negatively affect the environment

Plastic sticks around in the environment for ages, threatening wildlife and spreading toxins. Plastic also contributes to global warming.
⦁ Plastic affects human health. Toxic chemicals leach out of plastic and are found in the blood and tissue of nearly all of us. …
⦁ Plastic spoils our groundwater.
⦁ Plastic attracts other pollutants.

Three ways in which the city can reduce its consumption of fossil fuel

Water Management: Cities can offer energy-efficient programs. They can help people purchase water-saving devices for their homes. They can also incentivize them to do so with tax breaks. There are low-flow faucets, toilets, and shower heads. There are also water saving dishwashers and washing machines. These appliances use significantly less water than older, more outdated models.

Green space: Plants and trees reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the air by utilizing energy from the sun. Creating concentrated pockets of green space throughout a city in the form of parks, playgrounds, urban farms, and open spaces provide a better quality of life for city dwellers. In addition, they will better the atmosphere by cooling the surrounding air, offsetting carbon dioxide.

Use solar panel :Skyscrapers and massive buildings are staples of urban life. By installing solar panels, which absorb light from the sun, on even some of these structures, the city would be able to tap into free energy in the form of generating electricity or heating during daytime hours. This would make the best use of an enormous and pre-existing surface area. It will also cut back on the amount of fossil fuel people use.

Waste Management: The management and disposal are not always the most efficient. Small efforts can better eliminate waste. One of these efforts is to outlaw plastic bag distribution in stores since they do not decompose. Also, if more opportunities existed for people to recycle, fewer recyclable materials would arrive in landfills and could, instead, be repurposed.

Social Studies

Define the term ‘sustainable development ‘

Sustainable development is defined as an approach to developing or growing by using resources in a way that allows for them to renew or continue to exist for others. Using recycled materials or renewable resources when building is an example of sustainable development.

State ONE benefits of conserving the supply of fresh water

Conserving water is important because it keeps water pure and clean while protecting the environment.
⦁ It reduces the effects of drought and water shortages. …
⦁ It guards against rising costs and political conflict. …
⦁ It helps to preserve our environment. …
⦁ It makes water available for recreational purposes.

Explain two named factors that may lead to high rate of unemployment in a country

Unemployment is caused by various reasons.
These include: economic growth; structural factors; demographics; education and training; innovation; labor unions; and industry consolidation In addition to macroeconomic and individual firm-related factors,
People with upper secondary education have lower unemployment rates and higher employment rates than people with a lower level of education

Forest provide us with oxygen, they cause rainfall.
Forest prevents soil erosion.
Forests help reduce climate change
Plants are dependent on animals and birds for their pollination and seed dispersal. Forests provide us with various medicines.

Two recreation uses of forest Hunting and Fishing, mountain biking

Two activities which have contributed to the removal of large areas of forest lands
⦁ Natural causes as hurricanes, fires, parasites and floods.

⦁ Human activities such as agricultural expansion, cattle breeding, timber extraction, mining, oil extraction, dam construction and infrastructure development (road, sewage, bridges, water, electric system)

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